Short-term changes in bone and mineral metabolism following gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients

Ki Hyun Baek, Hae Myung Jeon, Seong Su Lee, Dong Jun Lim, Ki Won Oh, Won Young Lee, Eun Jung Rhee, Je Ho Han, Bong Yun Cha, Kwang Woo Lee, Ho Young Son, Sung Koo Kang, Moo Il Kang
Bone 2008, 42 (1): 61-7
Changes in bone and mineral metabolism that occur after gastrectomy have long been recognized. Gastrectomy has been identified as a risk factor for decreased bone mass and the increased fracture incidence. Previous investigations concerning postgastrectomy bone disease have been observational studies. No prospective studies have been reported that quantify the amount of bone loss after gastrectomy within the same patients. This study investigated 46 patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma and analyzed 36 patients (58.1+/-10.8 years, 24 men and 12 women) who had dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) performed before and 1 year after gastrectomy. Systemic adjuvant chemotherapy was administered to 14 patients. Blood was sampled from all patients to determine serum calcium, phosphorous, and bone turnover marker levels before gastrectomy and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery and for serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels before and 12 months after surgery. The mean bone loss in the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter, which was calculated as the percentage change from the baseline to the level measured at 12 months, was 5.7% (P<0.01), 5.4% (P<0.01), 6.6% (P<0.01) and 8.7% (P<0.01), respectively. Bone loss was generally greater in the group receiving chemotherapy. The serum calcium and phosphorous levels were not changed significantly and remained within the normal range throughout the observation period. After gastrectomy, the level of ICTP increased and reached a peak at 1 and 3 months, and progressively declined to baseline by 12 months. The osteocalcin levels were not coupled to an increase before 6 months. The level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D at 12 months postgastrectomy was not significantly changed compared to the baseline, however, the PTH levels increased by a mean of 63.6% at 12 months compared to the baseline (P<0.01). Significant correlations were found between the percent change in the BMD at the lumbar spine and total hip and the percentage change for the PTH level from their baselines to 12 months. The changes in the BMD at total hip, femoral neck, and trochanter also correlated to the change in body weight at 12 months. The data obtained by this study provides evidence that profound bone loss occurs in the setting of a bone remodeling imbalance during the early postgastrectomy period and allows the speculation that the gastrectomy related bone loss may be partially due to an overproduction of PTH.

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