Theaflavins induce G2/M arrest by modulating expression of p21waf1/cip1, cdc25C and cyclin B in human prostate carcinoma PC-3 cells

Sahdeo Prasad, Jaspreet Kaur, Preeti Roy, Neetu Kalra, Yogeshwer Shukla
Life Sciences 2007 October 13, 81 (17): 1323-31
Cancer of the prostate gland (PCA) is the most common invasive malignancy and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in males. The polyphenolic constituents of black tea have gained considerable attention as chemopreventive agents. Many studies have shown that black tea reduces the risk of several cancer types. In the present study, we studied the effect of a black tea polyphenol, theaflavin (TF), on cellular proliferation and cell death in the human prostate cancer cell line, PC-3. We showed that TF inhibits cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Studies on cell cycle progression have shown that the anti-proliferative effect of TF is associated with an increase in the G2/M phase of PC-3 cells. Western blot results showed that TF-induced G2/M phase arrest was mediated through the inhibition of cyclin-regulated signaling pathways. TF induces cyclin kinase inhibitor p21(waf1/cip1) expression and inhibits cdc25C and cyclin B expression. Increased exposure time to TF caused apoptosis of PC-3 cells, which was associated with up-regulation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9 and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. The role of caspase-induced apoptosis was further confirmed by a reduction in mitochondria membrane potential and the appearance of a DNA laddering pattern. Thus, it can be concluded that TF acts as an effective anti-proliferative agent by modulating cell growth regulators in prostate cancer cells.

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