JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Conflicting and new risk factors for contrast induced nephropathy

Omer Toprak
Journal of Urology 2007, 178 (6): 2277-83
17936812

PURPOSE: Iodinated contrast medium is commonly used in diagnostic or interventional procedures in uroradiology. Procedures requiring the intravascular administration of iodinated contrast medium are becoming a great source of an iatrogenic disease known as contrast induced nephropathy. Identifying patients at high risk is the first step to minimize the overall risk of contrast induced nephropathy. This review describes conflicting and new risk factors for contrast induced nephropathy.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A MEDLINE/PubMed search from 1966 to 2006 was performed. All articles related to the use of contrast medium and the risk factors for contrast induced nephropathy were reviewed.

RESULTS: The classic risk factors for contrast induced nephropathy are preexisting renal failure, diabetes mellitus, advanced age, nephrotoxic agent administration, hypovolemia, use of a large amount of contrast medium or an ionic hyperosmolar contrast medium and congestive heart failure. Metabolic syndrome, prediabetes and hyperuricemia have been identified as new risk factors for contrast induced nephropathy. The use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers, renal transplantation, diabetes mellitus with normal renal function, low osmolar contrast medium in patients at high risk for contrast induced nephropathy, multiple myeloma, female gender and cirrhosis have been classified as conflicting risk factors for contrast induced nephropathy.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients at risk for contrast induced nephropathy should be identified before urological procedures requiring contrast administration. In addition to the classic risk factors for contrast induced nephropathy, determining the metabolic syndrome, hyperuricemia and prediabetes as well as the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers before performing procedures using contrast medium seems to be a useful guide to assess the risk of contrast induced nephropathy.

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