Serum levels of IgE anti-BP180 and anti-BP230 autoantibodies in patients with bullous pemphigoid

Nobuko Ishiura, Manabu Fujimoto, Rei Watanabe, Hiroko Nakashima, Yoshihiro Kuwano, Norihito Yazawa, Takeshi Echigo, Hitoshi Okochi, Kunihiko Tamaki
Journal of Dermatological Science 2008, 49 (2): 153-61

BACKGROUND: Bullous pemphigoid (BP) is a subepidermal blistering disease characterized by autoantibodies against the hemidesmosomal proteins, BP180 and BP230. NC16A, a non-collagenous stretch of the BP180 ectodomain is the primary target of pathogenic IgG antibodies. Whereas IgG anti-BP180 autoantibodies play a primary role in the pathogenesis, there is a growing number of data regarding the potential pathogenic roles of IgE class autoantibodies in BP.

OBJECTIVES: To examine the levels of IgG and IgE autoantibodies against BP180 and BP230, and to investigate mutual association and clinical relevance.

METHODS: Sera obtained from 67BP patients and 36 healthy donors were subjected to ELISA assays to measure serum IgG and IgE levels of anti-BP180 and anti-BP230 antibodies.

RESULTS: IgG anti-BP180 antibodies were positive in 63 (94%) of 67BP patients. IgG anti-BP230, IgE anti-BP180, and IgE anti-BP230 antibodies were found in 48 (72%), 20 (30%) and 45 (67%), respectively. IgG anti-BP180 levels were correlated with the affected areas. IgG anti-BP230 antibodies tended to increase in proportion to elongation of disease duration. IgE anti-BP230 levels showed a strong association with local eosinophil accumulation, while the levels were reversely related with the affected areas in BP.

CONCLUSIONS: IgE autoantibodies to BP180 and BP230 are detected at high frequencies in BP. IgE anti-BP230 antibodies may have a role in attracting eosinophils to the skin lesions.

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