Evolution of hepatitis B serological markers in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy

Wang-Huei Sheng, Jia-Horng Kao, Pei-Jer Chen, Li-Ming Huang, Sui-Yuan Chang, Hsin-Yun Sun, Chien-Ching Hung, Mao-Yuan Chen, Shan-Chwen Chang
Clinical Infectious Diseases 2007 November 1, 45 (9): 1221-9

BACKGROUND: Evolution of serological markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriage or infection has rarely been investigated among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

METHODS: During the period 1997-2002, a total of 633 HIV-infected patients were tested for HBV serological markers at baseline, including hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs ), antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody (anti-HCV) antibody, HCV RNA level, and HBV DNA level, all of which were retested at least 1 year apart. Medical records were reviewed to identify clinical characteristics associated with evolution of these serological markers.

RESULTS: After a median duration of follow-up for 4.96 years, 161 patients (25.4%) had changes in HBV serological markers. Of 119 patients (18.8%) who tested positive for HBsAg at baseline, 6 (5.0%) developed anti-HBs, and 9 (7.6%) developed isolated anti-HBc. Of 270 patients (42.7%) who tested positive for anti-HBs, 18 (6.7%) lost anti-HBs. Of 179 patients (28.3%) in whom isolated anti-HBc had been detected, 73 (40.8%) developed anti-HBs, 18 (10.1%) lost all HBV markers, and 7 (3.9%) developed HBsAg. Of 65 patients (10.2%) who tested negative for all HBV markers, 13 (20%) developed anti-HBs, 13 (20%) developed isolated anti-HBc, and 4 (6.2%) developed HBsAg, indicating a high risk of HBV exposure. Patients in whom anti-HBc was detected at baseline were more likely to have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (P=.008). Multivariate analysis revealed that an increase in the CD4 cell count after the commencement of HAART was significantly associated with persistence or subsequent development of anti-HBs in patients with anti-HBs or anti-HBc at baseline, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Periodic measurements of HBV serological markers in HIV-infected patients are recommended, because new HBV infections and changes of HBV serological markers are not uncommon in patients with improved immunity after commencement of HAART.

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