The multikinase inhibitor sorafenib potentiates TRAIL lethality in human leukemia cells in association with Mcl-1 and cFLIPL down-regulation

Roberto R Rosato, Jorge A Almenara, Stefanie Coe, Steven Grant
Cancer Research 2007 October 1, 67 (19): 9490-500
Interactions between the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) were examined in malignant hematopoietic cells. Pretreatment (24 h) of U937 leukemia cells with 7.5 micromol/L sorafenib dramatically increased apoptosis induced by sublethal concentrations of TRAIL/Apo2L (75 ng/mL). Similar interactions were observed in Raji, Jurkat, Karpas, K562, U266 cells, primary acute myelogenous leukemia blasts, but not in normal CD34+ bone marrow cells. Sorafenib/TRAIL-induced cell death was accompanied by mitochondrial injury and release of cytochrome c, Smac, and AIF into the cytosol and caspase-9, caspase-3, caspase-7, and caspase-8 activation. Sorafenib pretreatment down-regulated Bcl-xL and abrogated Mcl-1 expression, whereas addition of TRAIL sharply increased Bid activation, conformational change of Bak (ccBak) and Bax (ccBax), and Bax translocation. Ectopic Mcl-1 expression significantly attenuated sorafenib/TRAIL-mediated lethality and dramatically reduced ccBak while minimally affecting levels of ccBax. Similarly, inhibition of the receptor-mediated apoptotic cascade with a caspase-8 dominant-negative mutant significantly blocked sorafenib/TRAIL-induced lethality but not Mcl-1 down-regulation or Bak/Bax conformational change, indicating that TRAIL-mediated receptor pathway activation is required for maximal lethality. Sorafenib/TRAIL did not increase expression of DR4/DR5, or recruitment of procaspase-8 or FADD to the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC), but strikingly increased DISC-associated procaspase-8 activation. Sorafenib also down-regulated cFLIP(L), most likely through a translational mechanism, in association with diminished eIF4E phosphorylation, whereas ectopic expression of cFLIP(L) significantly reduced sorafenib/TRAIL lethality. Together, these results suggest that in human leukemia cells, sorafenib potentiates TRAIL-induced lethality by down-regulating Mcl-1 and cFLIP(L), events that cooperate to engage the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic cascades, culminating in pronounced mitochondrial injury and apoptosis.

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