Na+/H+ exchanger inhibitor cariporide attenuates the mitochondrial Ca2+ overload and PTP opening

Takako Toda, Toshie Kadono, Minako Hoshiai, Yu Eguchi, Shinpei Nakazawa, Hiroe Nakazawa, Naoko Higashijima, Hideyuki Ishida
American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology 2007, 293 (6): H3517-23
The Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE) inhibitor cariporide has a cardioprotective effect in various animal models of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. Recent studies have suggested that cariporide interacts with mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT); however, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. Therefore, we examined whether cariporide affects mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and MPT. Isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes were used to study the effects of cariporide on hypercontracture induced by ouabain or phenylarsine oxide (PAO). Mitochondrial Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](m)) and the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)) were measured by loading myocytes with rhod-2 and JC-1, respectively. We also examined the effect of cariporide on the MPT using tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) and oxidative stress generated by laser illumination. Cariporide (1 microM) prevented ouabain-induced hypercontracture (from 40 +/- 2 to 24 +/- 2%, P < 0.05) and significantly attenuated ouabain-induced [Ca(2+)](m) overload (from 149 +/- 6 to 121 +/- 5% of the baseline value, P < 0.05) but did not affect DeltaPsi(m). These results indicate that cariporide attenuates the [Ca(2+)](m) overload without the accompanying depolarization of DeltaPsi(m). Moreover, cariporide increased the time taken to induce the MPT (from 79 +/- 11 to 137 +/- 20 s, P < 0.05) and also attenuated PAO-induced hypercontracture (from 59 +/- 3 to 50 +/- 4%, P < 0.05). Our data indicate that cariporide attenuates [Ca(2+)](m) overload and MPT. Thus these effects might potentially contribute to the mechanisms of cardioprotection afforded by NHE inhibitors.

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