Combination of low doses of intrathecal ketamine and midazolam with bupivacaine improves postoperative analgesia in orthopaedic surgery

T Murali Krishna, N B Panda, Y K Batra, S Rajeev
European Journal of Anaesthesiology 2008, 25 (4): 299-306

BACKGROUND: Intrathecal ketamine produces a short period of analgesia with stable haemodynamics. Midazolam with bupivacaine prolongs the duration of analgesia when administered intrathecally but does not prevent hypotension. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a combination of intrathecal bupivacaine, ketamine and midazolam on the duration of analgesia and haemodynamic parameters.

METHODS: A prospective, randomized, double-blind study was carried out in 60 ASA I and II patients undergoing lower limb surgery under spinal anaesthesia. Patients were divided into three groups of 20 each. Patients in all the three groups received 3 mL of hyperbaric bupivacaine (0.5%) intrathecally. In addition, patients in Groups II and III received intrathecal ketamine (0.1 mg kg-1) and the same dose of ketamine along with midazolam (0.02 mg kg-1), respectively. All patients were evaluated for block characteristics, duration of pain-free period, total rescue analgesic requirement in the 24-h postoperative period, total dose of mephenteramine to treat hypotension and any central or neurological complication.

RESULTS: No patients in Group II required mephenteramine while 40% of patients in Group I and 10% in Group III required mephenteramine to maintain blood pressure after spinal anaesthesia. The mean +/- standard deviation duration of pain-free period was 331.5 +/- 89.9, 369.7 +/- 124.2 and 730.5 +/- 81.5 min in Group I, II and III, respectively. The pain-free interval was significantly greater in Group III compared to Groups I and II (P < 0.001). No patient had any complications.

CONCLUSION: A low dose of midazolam and ketamine with bupivacaine intrathecally results in prolonged analgesia and less haemodynamic fluctuations. However, the safety of this combination needs to be proved before its use in clinical practice.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"