JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Predictors of fetal outcome in pregnant trauma patients: a five-year institutional review.

American Surgeon 2007 August
Injury Severity Score (ISS) and lactate are controversial in predicting fetal outcome. A retrospective review was conducted to determine whether ISS and lactate are valuable in predicting fetal survival in injured pregnant patients. Injured pregnant women were identified by ICD-9 codes from our Trauma Registry, Emergency Department Registry, and hospital medical records. Records were reviewed for demographic data, mechanism of injury, ISS, Glascow Coma Scale, lactate, vital signs, and maternal/fetal outcome. To determine statistical analysis, chi2 and t test analysis was performed. From 2001 to 2005, 294 women reported injuries. Most patients (51.7%) were discharged from the Emergency Department, yet 18 per cent were admitted to Trauma Surgery. The average maternal and gestational age was 23.4 years and 19.6 weeks, respectively. Seventy-two (33.3%) patients were in the first trimester. The majority of patients (88.1%) were involved in blunt trauma, and 10 (3.9%) had poor fetal outcome (nine fetal deaths and one hydrops fetalis). There were no maternal deaths. Maternal age, first trimester, elevated lactate, and high ISS were significant risk factors for poor fetal outcome (P = 0.044, P = 0.0173, P = 0.0001, and P = 0.0001, respectively). Specific parameters (ISS, lactate, maternal age, and gestational age) may be helpful in predicting poor fetal outcome and directing patient management.

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