The DPP-4 inhibitor vildagliptin: robust glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes and beyond

G Panina
Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism 2007, 9 Suppl 1: 32-9
Vildagliptin is a potent selective inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) that improves glycaemic control by increasing islet alpha-cell and beta-cell responsiveness to glucose. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), vildagliptin improves beta-cell function, measured as insulin secretory rate relative to glucose level, and reduces glucagon secretion and endogenous glucose production in the postprandial period, resulting in reduced glucose levels. In clinical trials in T2DM, vildagliptin 100 mg/day monotherapy is effective in reducing haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) across the spectrum of hyperglycaemia and has maintained efficacy over long-term treatment with neutral effects on body weight and lipids. Vildagliptin is associated with a low risk of hypoglycaemia, and has an adverse event profile comparable to placebo, including a reduced rate of gastrointestinal adverse effects compared with metformin and a reduced rate of oedema compared with rosiglitazone. As add-on combination therapy, vildagliptin produces significant further reductions in HbA1c in patients receiving metformin, pioglitazone, glimepiride and insulin, and has been found to reduce frequency of hypoglycaemia as an add-on to insulin. Preliminary findings indicate that the improved islet cell function underlying the efficacy of vildagliptin in T2DM is also observed in patients with impaired glucose tolerance, with vildagliptin treatment resulting in reduced glycaemic excursions. The overall profile of vildagliptin and the preliminary evidence of beneficial effects in the prediabetic state suggest that DPP-4 inhibition could be an effective strategy to prevent or delay progression from the prediabetic state to overt T2DM.

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