Factors affecting hip range of motion in surface replacement arthroplasty

Pascal-André Vendittoli, Muthu Ganapathi, Natalia Nuño, Dominic Plamondon, Martin Lavigne
Clinical Biomechanics 2007, 22 (9): 1004-12

BACKGROUND: Surface replacement arthroplasty aims to re-create normal hip biomechanics; however the pathoanathomy of the hip, prosthetic component design, surgical technique and other factors may have a significant impact on the range of motion restoration attained following surface replacement arthroplasty. However, there is paucity of information on the effect of such factors.

METHODS: A computerized three-dimensional hip model was created from preoperative computerized tomography images of a patient who was scheduled for a surface replacement arthroplasty. The effects of the femoral component size, translation and orientation on the range of motion were analysed as was the effect of increasing the seating depth and modification of the version of the acetabular component.

FINDINGS: Increasing the femoral component size led to global improvement in range of motion while translation increased range of motion in one direction but reduced it in the opposite direction. Change in the femoral component orientation had minimal effects on range of motion in comparison to the effect of changes in the version of the acetabular component. Increasing the seating depth of the acetabulum only caused reduced range of motion in internal rotation in 90 degrees flexion.

INTERPRETATION: To restore hip range of motion, surgeons performing surface replacement arthroplasty should aim to reproduce the natural femoral head-neck offset. Although increasing the femoral component size may achieve this, more acetabular bone will be resected. Knowing the specific zones of impingement of each arc of movement, selective translation of the femoral component or femoral neck osteoplasty can restore femoral neck offset in more critical areas without affecting acetabular bone stock. Over deepening of the acetabulum or leaving rim osteophytes should also be avoided to prevent impingement.

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