Acute type B aortic dissection: does aortic arch involvement affect management and outcomes? Insights from the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD)

Thomas T Tsai, Eric M Isselbacher, Santi Trimarchi, Eduardo Bossone, Linda Pape, James L Januzzi, Arturo Evangelista, Jae K Oh, Alfredo Llovet, Joshua Beckman, Jeanna V Cooper, Dean E Smith, James B Froehlich, Rossella Fattori, Kim A Eagle, Christoph A Nienaber
Circulation 2007 September 11, 116 (11 Suppl): I150-6

BACKGROUND: Stanford Type B acute aortic dissection (TB-AAD) spares the ascending aorta and is optimally managed with medical therapy in the absence of complications. However, the treatment of TB-AAD with aortic arch involvement (AAI) remains an unresolved issue.

METHODS AND RESULTS: We examined 498 patients with TB-AAD enrolled in the International Registry of Acute Aortic Dissection (IRAD) between 1996 and 2003. Kaplan-Meier mortality curves were constructed and multivariate regression models were performed to identify independent predictors of AAI and to evaluate whether AAI was an independent predictor of follow-up mortality. We found that 371 (74.5%) patients with TB-AAD did not have AAI versus 127 (25.5%) with AAI. Independent predictors of AAI were a history of previous aortic surgery (OR 3.4; 95% CI, 1.6 to 7.6; P=0.002), absence of back pain (OR 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.5; P=0.05), and any pulse deficit (1.9; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.3, P=0.03). Mortality for patients without AAI was 9.4%+/-4.3% and 21.0%+/-6.9% at 1 and 3 years versus 9.2%+/-7.7% and 19.9%+/-11.1% with AAI, respectively (mean follow-up overall, 2.3 years, log rank P=0.82). AAI was not an independent predictor of long-term mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with TB-AAD and aortic arch involvement do not differ with regards to mortality at 3 years. Whether or not AAI involvement impacts other measures of morbidity such as freedom from operation or endovascular intervention deserves further study.

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