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Acute epididymitis in Greek children: a 3-year retrospective study.

The aim of the study was to compare historical features, physical examination findings, and testicular color Doppler ultrasound in pediatric patients with epididymitis compared to testicular torsion and torsion of the appendix testes. A retrospective review of the medical records of 66 boys presenting with clinical aspects of acute scrotum over a 3-year period was performed. Sixty-six patients were included in the study (29 with epididymitis, 8 with testicular torsion and 12 with torsion of the appendix testis, 4 with scrotal abscesses, 5 with scrotal swelling, and 1 with inflamed epididymal cyst). The duration of symptoms ranged from 6 h to 4 days with a peak on the second day. Urine cultures and viral testes were negative in all patients. Color Doppler ultrasound was diagnostic for epididymitis in 28 patients (96.6%). Systemic intravenous antibiotics were given in all 29 patients with epididymitis. No patient showed signs of testicular atrophy in the follow-up. The increasing incidence of epididymitis should question the policy of routine exploration of the acute scrotum in children. The history and physical examination cannot reliably identify those boys who can be managed conservatively. Color Doppler ultrasound is a useful adjunct in the evaluation of the acute scrotum when physical findings are equivocal but it can also be misleading.

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