REVIEW
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Diagnosis of adult GH deficiency.

The current guidelines for the diagnosis of adult GHD are mainly based on the statements from the GH Research Society Consensus from Port Stevens in 1997. It is stated that diagnosis of adult GHD must be shown biochemically by provocative tests within the appropriate clinical context. The insulin tolerance test (ITT) was indicated as that of choice and severe GHD defined by a GH peak lower than 3 microg/L. The need to rely on provocative tests is based on evidence that that the measurement of IGF-I as well as of IGFBP-3 levels does not distinguish between normal and GHD subjects. Hypoglycemia may be contraindicated; thus, alternative provocative tests were considered, provided they are used with appropriate cut-off limits. Among classical provocative tests, arginine and glucagon alone were indicated as alternative tests, although less discriminatory than ITT. Testing with the combined administration of GHRH plus arginine was recommended as an alternative to ITT, mostly taking into account its marked specificity. Based on data in the literature in the last decade, the GRS Consensus Statements should be appropriately amended. Regarding the appropriate clinical context for the suspicion of adult GHD, one should evaluate patients with hypothalamic or pituitary disease or a history of cranial irradiation, as well as those with childhood-onset GHD are at obvious risk as adults for severe GHD. Brain injuries (trauma, subarachnoid hemorrage, tumours of the central nervous system) very often cause acquired hypopituitarism, including severe GHD. Given the epidemiology of brain injuries, the important role of the endocrinologist in providing major clinical benefit to brain injured patients who are still undiagnosed should be underscored. From the biochemical point of view, although normal IGF-I levels do not rule out severe GHD, very low IGF-I levels in patients highly suspected for GHD (i.e. patients with childhood-onset, severe GHD or with multiple hypopituitarism acquired in adulthood) can be considered as definitive evidence for severe GHD; thus, these patients would skip provocative tests. Patients suspected for adult GHD with normal IGF-I levels must be investigated by provocative tests. ITT remains a test of reference but it should be recognized that other tests are as reliable as ITT. Glucagon as classical test and, particularly, new maximal tests such as GHRH in combination with arginine or GH secretagogues (GHS) (i.e. GHRP-6) have well defined cut-off limits, are reproducible, able to distinguish between normal and GHD subjects. Overweight and obesity have confounding effect on the interpretation of the GH response to provocative tests. In adults cut-off levels of GH response below which severe GHD is demonstrated must be appropriate to lean, overweight and obese subjects to avoid false positive diagnosis in obese adults and false negative diagnosis in lean GHD patients. Finally, normative values of GH response to provocative tests may depend on age, particularly in the transitional age; the normative cut-off levels of GH response to ITT in this phase of life are now available.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app