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Hormonal treatments for adenomyosis.

Like endometriosis and uterine myomas, adenomyosis presents the typical characteristics of oestrogen-dependent diseases. The medical treatment of adenomyosis is based on the hormonal dependency of the disease and its strongly debated similarities with endometriosis. Infact, despite the evident differences between the two conditions, the therapies that treat endometriosis effectively have also been successful for the treatment of adenomyosis. Although the two diseases have distinct epidemiological features, they have the same 'target tissue' for hormonal therapy, namely ectopic endometrium. Recognized approaches are systemic hormonal treatments, which are generally used for endometriosis and are capable of suppressing the oestrogenic induction of the disease, and local hormonal treatment that targets the ectopic endometrium directly. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists, danazol and intrauterine levonorgestrel- or danazol-releasing devices have been used in the treatment of adenomyosis. Despite the solid rational basis for its hormonal treatment, few studies have been performed on medical therapy for adenomyosis.

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