Multicolor real-time polymerase chain reaction genotyping of six human platelet antigens using displacing probes

Li Ruan, Bin Pei, Qingge Li
Transfusion 2007, 47 (9): 1637-42

BACKGROUND: Several genotyping methods for six clinically relevant human platelet antigens (HPAs) have been reported. A four-color real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method using displacing probes for genotyping of the six HPAs is described.

STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Primers and four differently fluorophor-labeled displacing probes were designed and synthesized to detect single-nucleotide polymorphisms responsible for each of the HPA-1, -2, -3, -4, -5, and -15 genotypes. Two HPA systems were analyzed in a single PCR procedure. After validation with samples of known genotypes, a total of 150 blood samples from healthy donors were genotyped. The results were compared with PCR with sequence-specific primers (SSP), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and/or direct DNA sequencing. The frequencies of each HPA allele were calculated.

RESULTS: Unequivocal real-time PCR genotyping results were obtained with minimal manual manipulation and carryover contamination. All 150 blood samples were correctly genotyped as confirmed by PCR-SSP, PCR-RFLP, and/or direct DNA sequencing. The allelic frequencies of HPA-1 through -5 and -15 among the Chinese population in Xiamen were comparable with those previously reported with Chinese living in other territories. For each specimen, genotyping of all six HPA biallelic systems was achieved in three tubes of PCR within 90 minutes and with material cost of no more than $1.

CONCLUSION: Genotyping of HPA with real-time PCR using displacing probes is more rapid and reliable compared with PCR-SSP and PCR-RFLP methods and is more affordable than existing real-time PCR-based HPA genotyping assays. Thus, our approach is more suitable for routine HPA analysis and ideal for both urgent clinical testing and high-throughput screening.

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