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Gadolinium is not the only trigger for nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: insights from two cases and review of the recent literature.

Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is an emerging fibrosing disease with serious consequences in patients with acute and chronic kidney disease including solid organ and renal transplant recipients. It has recently been linked to gadolinium exposure. Almost all recently reported cases of NSF were found to be preceded by gadolinium administration, which led the FDA to issue a warning against the use of gadolinium in patients with moderate-to-severe reduction in the glomerular filtration rate. We report two organ transplant recipients who developed NSF and in whom extensive record review failed to document any prior gadolinium exposure. We then critically review the recently published literature linking NSF and gadolinium and we propose other possible triggers. We conclude that gadolinium is not the only trigger for NSF, and that the search for other triggers should be sought. We believe that this information is an important addition to the NSF literature, such that the definitive etiology and pathogenesis of NSF can be researched.

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