Selective hepatic vascular exclusion and Pringle maneuver: a comparative study in liver resection

W Zhou, A Li, Z Pan, S Fu, Y Yang, L Tang, Z Hou, M Wu
European Journal of Surgical Oncology 2008, 34 (1): 49-54

OBJECTIVE: Most liver resections require champing of the hepatic pedicle (Pringle maneuver) to avoid excessive blood loss. But Pringle maneuver cannot control backflow bleeding of the hepatic vein. Resection of liver tumors involving hepatic veins may cause massive hemorrhage or air embolism from injuries of the hepatic vein. Although total hepatic vascular exclusion (THVE) can prevent bleeding of the hepatic vein effectively, it also may result in systemic hemodynamic disturbance because of the clamped inferior vena cava (IVC). SHVE, a new technique, can control the inflow and outflow of the liver without clamping the vena cava. We compared the effects of selective hepatic vascular exclusion (SHVE) and Pringle maneuver in resection of liver tumors involving the junction of the hepatic vein.

METHODS: From January 2000 to October 2005, 2100 patients with liver tumors had undergone liver resections in our department. Among them, tumors of 235 cases adhered to or were close to the junction of one or more hepatic veins. Both SHVE and Pringle maneuver were used to control blood loss during hepatectomy. These 235 cases were divided into two groups: Pringle maneuver group (110) from January 2000 to December 2002 and SHVE group (125) from January 2003 to October 2005. Data were analyzed regarding the intraoperative and postoperative courses of the patients. In the SHVE group, total SHVE (clamping the porta hepatis and all major hepatic veins) was used in 69 cases and partial SHVE (clamping the porta hepatic and one or two hepatic veins) in 56 cases. There were three methods in hepatic veins occlusion: ligating with suture, encircling and occluding with tourniquets and clamping with Satinsky clamps.

RESULTS: There was no difference between the two groups regarding the age, gender, tumor size, cirrhosis and HBsAg rate, ischemia time and operating time. Intraoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements were significantly decreased in the SHVE group. Hepatic veins rupture with massive blood loss occurred in 14 and air embolism in three during the tumor resection, but there was no massive blood loss and air embolism in the SHVE group due to hepatic vein occlusion. Postoperative bleeding, reoperation, liver failure and mortality rate were higher, and ICU stay and hospital stay were longer in the Pringle group than those in the SHVE group.

CONCLUSION: SHVE is much more effective than Pringle maneuver in controlling intraoperative bleeding. It can prevent massive blood loss and air embolism from hepatic veins rupture and can reduce the postoperative complication rate and mortality rate. Clamping the hepatic veins with Satinsky clamps is much safer and easier than ligating with suture and occluding with tourniquets.


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