Effect of probiotics on intestinal regrowth and bacterial translocation after massive small bowel resection in a rat

Jorge G Mogilner, Isaac Srugo, Michael Lurie, Ron Shaoul, Arnold G Coran, Eitan Shiloni, Igor Sukhotnik
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 2007, 42 (8): 1365-71

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Because of their ability to inhibit intestinal bacterial overgrowth, probiotics (PROs) have been advocated for the treatment of patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS). This study was conducted to determine the effect of PROs on bacterial translocation and intestinal regrowth after massive small bowel resection in a rat.

METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 experimental groups: sham rats underwent bowel transection and reanastomosis, SBS rats underwent 75% small bowel resection, and SBS-PRO rats underwent bowel resection and were treated with a PRO given in drinking water from day 4 through 14. Intestinal structural changes (bowel circumference, overall bowel and mucosal weight, mucosal DNA and protein, villus height and crypt depth, enterocyte proliferation and enterocyte apoptosis) and bacterial translocation (BT) to mesenteric lymph nodes, liver, portal blood, and peripheral blood were determined on day 15 after operation.

RESULTS: Sham rats exhibited a 20% BT to the mesenteric lymph nodes (level I), liver (level II), and blood (level III). Short bowel syndrome rats demonstrated a 100% BT to lymph nodes (level I) and liver (level II) and 40% translocation to peripheral blood (level III). Treatment with PROs resulted in a significant decrease in BT to all 3 target organs and decreased enterocyte apoptosis compared with SBS-untreated animals. Short bowel syndrome rats showed a significant increase (vs sham) in jejunal and ileal bowel and mucosal weight, mucosal DNA and protein, villus height, and crypt depth. Short bowel syndrome rats also had a greater proliferation index and apoptotic index in both jejunum and ileum compared with sham animals. SBS-PRO rats showed a significant increase (vs SBS rats) in crypt depth in ileum and a mild decrease in apoptotic index in jejunum and ileum, compared with SBS-untreated animals.

CONCLUSIONS: In a rat model of SBS, PROs decrease BT through mechanisms which maybe dependent on intestinal mucosal integrity.

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