Plasminogen activator system localization in 60 cases of ductal carcinoma in situ

Thelma C Hurd, Sheila Sait, Shin Kohga, Janet Winston, Maisie Martinick, Rakhee Saxena, Heather Lankes, Gabor Markus, Shashi Harvey, John F Gibbs
Annals of Surgical Oncology 2007, 14 (11): 3117-24

BACKGROUND: The lack of prognostic factors in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) that reliably identifies biologically aggressive tumors adversely affects optimal management. The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system, comprised of its receptor, uPAR, and its inhibitor (PAI-1), are critical elements for tumor invasion and their expression in invasive breast cancer can predict clinical outcome. Expression of the uPA system in DCIS may be relevant in defining histological subsets of DCIS with invasive potential.

METHODS: Localization of uPA, uPAR, and PAI-1 was investigated immunohistochemically in 60 DCIS tumors. FISH experiments were performed to determine whether uPA was present in cancer cells themselves or derived from stromal elements.

RESULTS: uPA was ubiquitously expressed in the malignant ductal epithelium of 95% (57/60) of DCIS tumors studied. uPA-mRNA was detected in the malignant ductal epithelium but not the adjacent normal ductal epithelium and stromal elements. uPAR was expressed in 27% (6/22) of high-grade and 24% (9/38) of non-high-grade DCIS. In comparing coexpression, uPA and uPAR were coexpressed in only 25% (15/60) of tumors. PAI-1 was infrequently expressed in high grade (3/22) and absent in non-high-grade DCIS.

CONCLUSIONS: This study identifies the presence of uPA, uPAR, and PAI-1 in both high-grade and non-high-grade DCIS. It may be speculated that coexpression of uPA and its receptor may identify subsets of DCIS with an increased risk for progression to invasive disease. If so, then expression of uPA system components may have prognostic and therapeutic significance in DCIS.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"