Prevalence and clinical significance of cardiovascular abnormalities in patients with the LEOPARD syndrome

Giuseppe Limongelli, Giuseppe Pacileo, Bruno Marino, Maria Cristina Digilio, Anna Sarkozy, Perry Elliott, Paolo Versacci, Paolo Calabro, Andrea De Zorzi, Giovanni Di Salvo, Petros Syrris, Michael Patton, William J McKenna, Bruno Dallapiccola, Raffaele Calabro
American Journal of Cardiology 2007 August 15, 100 (4): 736-41
The aim of this study was to characterize cardiovascular involvement in a large number of patients with LEOPARD syndrome. Twenty-six patients (age range 0 to 63 years, median age at the time of the study evaluation 17 years) underwent clinical and genetic investigations. Familial disease was ascertained in 9 patients. Nineteen patients (73%) showed electrocardiographic abnormalities. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was present in 19 patients (73%), including 9 with LV outflow tract obstructions; right ventricular hypertrophy was present in 8 patients (30%). Valve (57%) and coronary artery (15%) anomalies were also observed. Single patients showed LV apical aneurysm, LV noncompaction, isolated LV dilation, and atrioventricular canal defect. During follow-up (9.1 +/- 4.5 years), 2 patients died suddenly, and 2 patients had cardiac arrest. These patients had LV hypertrophy. Despite the limited number of subjects studied, genotype-phenotype correlations were observed in familial cases. In conclusion, most patients with LEOPARD syndrome showed LV hypertrophy, often in association with other valvular or congenital defects. A spectrum of underrecognized cardiac anomalies were also observed. Long-term prognosis was benign, but the occurrence of 4 fatal events in patients with LV hypertrophy indicates that such patients require careful risk assessment and, in some cases, consideration for prophylaxis against sudden death.

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