Attenuated vaccines for tropical theileriosis, babesiosis and heartwater: the continuing necessity

Varda Shkap, Albertus J de Vos, Erich Zweygarth, Frans Jongejan
Trends in Parasitology 2007, 23 (9): 420-6
Overwhelming evidence has accumulated of the effectiveness of immunization with live attenuated vaccines to control tick-borne diseases of livestock. Despite several disadvantages, vaccination with live attenuated organisms against tropical theileriosis, babesiosis and possibly heartwater constitutes one of the most cost-effective intervention strategies. Although great advances have been made through genomics and proteomics research, this has not yet translated into effective non-living vaccines. As a result, there is a continuing necessity to use available live vaccines in tick and tick-borne disease-control strategies adapted to conditions prevailing in many parts of the world.

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