Adsorption of Direct Red 80 dye from aqueous solution onto almond shells: effect of pH, initial concentration and shell type

F Doulati Ardejani, Kh Badii, N Yousefi Limaee, S Z Shafaei, A R Mirhabibi
Journal of Hazardous Materials 2008 March 1, 151 (2): 730-7
The adsorption of Direct Red 80 (DR 80) dye from aqueous solution on almond shells as an eco-friendly and low-cost adsorbent was studied. The effect of shell type (internal, external and mixture shells), pH and initial dye concentration were considered to evaluate the sorption capacity of almond shell adsorbent. The mixture type of almond shell showed to be more effective. The adsorption studies revealed that the mixture type of almond shells remove about 97% of the DR 80 dye from aqueous phase after 1h of the adsorption process in a batch system. Although, pH changes did not appreciably affect the adsorption process but the maximum adsorption capacity of different types of almond shells (20.5, 16.96 and 16.4 mg/g for mixture, external and internal shells) were obtained at pH 2. However, in order to have a better control on the experimental conditions, pH 6 was selected for conducting all adsorption experiments. Initial dye concentration was varied from 50 to 150 mg/L. Higher concentrations of dye in aqueous solution reduced DR 80 dye adsorption efficiency of almond shells. Equilibrium data were attempted by various adsorption isotherms including Langmuir, Freundlich and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) models. It was found that the adsorption process by mixture type of almond shells follows the Langmuir non-linear isotherm. Furthermore, the experimental data by internal and external almond shells could be well described by the BET and Freundlich isotherm models, respectively. The pseudo-second-order kinetics provides the best correlation of the experimental data.

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