HLA Association with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation outcome: the number of mismatches at HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, or -DQB1 is strongly associated with overall survival

Pascale Loiseau, Marc Busson, Marie-Lorraine Balere, Anne Dormoy, Jean-Denis Bignon, Katia Gagne, Lucette Gebuhrer, Valérie Dubois, Isabelle Jollet, Monique Bois, Pascale Perrier, Dominique Masson, Agnès Moine, Léna Absi, Denis Reviron, Virginia Lepage, Ryad Tamouza, Antoine Toubert, Evelyne Marry, Zina Chir, Jean-Pierre Jouet, Didier Blaise, Dominique Charron, Colette Raffoux
Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation 2007, 13 (8): 965-74
HLA matching between the donor and recipient improves the success of unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Because many patients in need of an unrelated transplant have only donors with mismatch, information is needed to evaluate the limits of HLA mismatching. We examined the association of survival, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) and relapse with HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB, -DQB1, and -DPB1 mismatching in 334 patients coming from 12 French transplant centers and who received a non-T cell-depleted bone marrow graft from an unrelated donor. All patients were prepared with the use of myeloablative conditioning regimens. Our analyses demonstrate negative effects of HLA mismatching for either HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, or -DQB1 loci on survival. Multivariate Cox analyses showed that a single mismatch was associated with a significant decrement in survival (P=.046, hazard ratio [HR]=1.41, confidence interval [CI] 95% 1.1-1.98). The presence of multiple mismatches was worse for survival (P=.003, HR=1.91, CI 95% 1.26-2.91) and severe aGVHD (grade III-IV) (P=.002, HR=2.51, CI95% 1.41-4.46). The cumulative incidences of aGVHD and relapse in those HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 identical pairs with 2, 1, or 0 DPB1 incompatibilities were 63%, 50%, and 51%, and 12%, 27%, and 20%, respectively, but these differences were not statistically significant. Similar differences of aGVHD and relapse, but not statistically significant, were observed in those HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1 identical pairs with DPB1 disparities classified into permissive or nonpermissive mismatches according to Zino's classification based on a hierarchy of the immunogenicity of the HLA-DP molecules. "Missing killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) ligand" evaluated on the presence of HLA-C1, -C2, and Bw4 groups in the recipients was not associated with aGVHD, survival, and relapse in this cohort of non-T cell-depleted HSCT.

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