Pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction

Allen P Burke, Renu Virmani
Medical Clinics of North America 2007, 91 (4): 553-72; ix
More than 80% of acute myocardial infarcts are the result of coronary atherosclerosis with superimposed luminal thrombus. Uncommon causes of myocardial infarction include coronary spasm, coronary embolism, and thrombosis in nonatherosclerotic normal vessels. Additionally, concentric subendocardial necrosis may result from global ischemia and reperfusion in cases of prolonged cardiac arrest with resuscitation. Myocardial ischemia shares features with other types of myocyte necrosis, such as that caused by inflammation, but specific changes result from myocyte hypoxia that vary based on length of occlusion of the vessel, duration between occlusion and reperfusion, and presence of collateral circulation.

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