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JOURNAL ARTICLE

[Ten-year experience with the Aldinger custom-made total hip arthroplasty: evaluation of the results]

J Masár
Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca 2007, 74 (3): 175-81
17623605

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The author presents the results of treatment with total hip arthroplasty (THA), in the Aldinger modification, in 91 patients receiving a total of 98 custom-made total hip implants in the period from 1993 to 2002. Eighty-eight patients (96.9 %) with 95 THAs were available for evaluation at the last follow-up.

MATERIAL: The group comprised 26 men (27 total hip implants), at an average age of 33.8 years (range, 25-57), and 65 women (71 implants) at an average age of 38.5 years (23-57) at the time of surgery. The right hip was operated on in 43 patients (18 men and 25 women) and the left one in 55 patients (9 men and 46 women). One man and six women underwent bilateral THA. The average time between the operation and the last follow-up was 8.6 years (range, 3 years and 11 months to 13 years and 3 months).

METHODS: The author describes the complete procedure from indications, planning and manufacture of an custom made implant to its implantation in combination with different types of acetabulum. The evaluation based on the Merle d'Aubigné score system, as modified by Griss, was carried out for an average follow-up of 8.6 years. RESULTS The outcomes were excellent, good and satisfactory in 69 (72.7 %), 16 (16.8 %) and 8 (8.4 %) patients, respectively. Two patients with septic complications (2.1 %) reported poor results. The overall complications involved aseptic loosening of the acetabulum in five, septic loosening of the acetabulum with severe lesions due to polyethylene wear in three, and infection in four patients. Eight cases were associated with periarticular ossifications and three patients developed deep venous thrombosis in the post-operative period.

DISCUSSION: The prerequisite for good outcomes in total hip arthroplasty using cementless implants is, in the author's opinion, the attainment of high primary stability. One of the options to achieve this is a thorough analysis of proximal femoral morphology on CT scans, which permits the construction of an custom made implant to each individual femur on the form-fit principle. Other advantages include a possibility to adjust the torsion angle of the femoral neck, to plan correction of limb length and to restore femoral offset, which provides conditions for optimal geometry of the hip joint. The excellent and good outcomes recorded in nearly 90 % of our patients at an average of 8.6 years of follow up are in agreement with the literature results. The fact that most of our complications were due to aseptic loosening of the acetabulum suggests that the use of a custom-made hip implant does not resolve the problems associated with acetabular dysplasia. A true loosening of the custom made stem occurred in only two cases with septic complications, in which any other type of stem would have behaved in a similar way. The same findings are also reported by other authors.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that the idea of exact adjusting of an implant to the bone (not vice versa) could meet the requirement for the implant's long life span and could allow for better physical therapy in the post-operative period, particularly in young patients with secondary post-traumatic or post-dislocation arthritis of the hip. Cemented hip implants, however, remain the gold standard for patients over 70 years. In younger patients it is necessary to put more emphasis on stable primary fixation, which can be achieved by 3D reconstruction of the joint to be replaced, by imaging methods and a subsequent computer processing of the procedures for designing, manufacturing and inserting the hip prosthesis. Key words: custom-made prosthesis, Aldinger modification, hip arthritis, functional results.

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