A novel synthetic compound that interrupts androgen receptor signaling in human prostate cancer cells

Shan Lu, Amy Wang, Shan Lu, Zhongyun Dong
Molecular Cancer Therapeutics 2007, 6 (7): 2057-64
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6-amino-2-[2-(4-tert-butyl-phenoxy)-ethylsulfonyl]-1H-pyrimidine-4-one (DL3), a novel synthetic compound with small-molecule drug properties, on androgen-regulated gene expression and cell growth in human prostate cancer cells. LNCaP, 22Rv1, and LAPC-4 cells were used in the studies. Expression of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and androgen receptor (AR) was determined by ELISA, Western blotting, real-time reverse transcription-PCR, nuclear run-on, and/or promoter luciferase reporter assays. Effects of DL3 on cell growth were determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide staining. DL3 inhibited dihydrotestosterone (DHT)-induced PSA expression in a dose-dependent fashion. The inhibitory effects of DL3 were more potent than those of flutamide, nilutamide, and bicalutamide. Moreover, DL3 blocked the stimulatory effects of nilutamide on PSA expression in LNCaP cells. Unlike the three classic antiandrogens, DL3 did not show intrinsic AR agonist activity. Nuclear run-on and PSA promoter reporter assays revealed that DL3 blocked DHT-induced PSA gene transcription. Consistent with its effects on PSA expression, DL3 inhibited DHT-stimulated cell growth with a potency significantly superior to flutamide, nilutamide, or bicalutamide. Furthermore, cells resistant to flutamide or nilutamide were as susceptible as their parental counterparts to the inhibitory effects of DL3 on both PSA expression and cell growth. DL3 did not inhibit AR nuclear localization and the NH(2)- and COOH-terminal interaction of AR induced by DHT. These data show that DL3 is a novel inhibitor of the AR signaling axis and a potentially potent therapeutic agent for the management of advanced human prostate cancer.

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