MicroRNA expression profiling in prostate cancer

Kati P Porkka, Minja J Pfeiffer, Kati K Waltering, Robert L Vessella, Teuvo L J Tammela, Tapio Visakorpi
Cancer Research 2007 July 1, 67 (13): 6130-5
MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small, endogenously expressed noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate expression of protein-coding genes at the translational level. Accumulating evidence, such as aberrant expression of miRNAs, suggests that they are involved in the development of cancer. They have been identified in various tumor types, showing that different sets of miRNAs are usually deregulated in different cancers. To identify the miRNA signature specific for prostate cancer, miRNA expression profiling of 6 prostate cancer cell lines, 9 prostate cancer xenografts samples, 4 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and 9 prostate carcinoma samples was carried out by using an oligonucleotide array hybridization method. Differential expression of 51 individual miRNAs between benign tumors and carcinoma tumors was detected, 37 of them showing down-regulation and 14 up-regulation in carcinoma samples, thus identifying those miRNAs that could be significant in prostate cancer development and/or growth. There was a significant trend (P=0.029) between the expression of miRNAs and miRNA locus copy number determined by array comparative genomic hybridization, indicating that genetic aberrations may target miRNAs. Hierarchical clustering of the tumor samples by their miRNA expression accurately separated the carcinomas from the BPH samples and also further classified the carcinoma tumors according to their androgen dependence (hormone naive versus hormone refractory), indicating the potential of miRNAs as a novel diagnostic and prognostic tool for prostate cancer.

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