Control of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae in a children's hospital by changing antimicrobial agent usage policy

Jina Lee, Hyunjoo Pai, Yun Kyung Kim, Nam Hee Kim, Byung Wook Eun, Hyoung Jin Kang, Kyoung Ho Park, Eun Hwa Choi, Hee Young Shin, Eui Chong Kim, Hoan Jong Lee, Hyo Seop Ahn
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 2007, 60 (3): 629-37

OBJECTIVES: This ambidirectional intervention study was performed to examine the impact of a change in antibiotic policy on extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) prevalence in a children's hospital with a high prevalence of ESBL production among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

METHODS: The use of extended-spectrum cephalosporins was restricted and use of beta-lactam/ beta-lactamase inhibitor combinations was encouraged from 2002. All strains of E. coli and K. pneumoniae isolated from sterile body fluids from 1999 to 2005 were analysed for beta-lactamase production and the prevalences of ESBL production were compared at three periods; pre-intervention (1999-2001), transitional period (2002-03) and post-intervention (2004-05).

RESULTS: Comparing the pre- and post-intervention periods, overall piperacillin/tazobactam use increased from 2.2 to 108.0 days on antibiotics/1000 patient admission days/year (AD) (P for trend < 0.001), whereas extended-spectrum cephalosporin use decreased from 175.0 to 96.9 AD (P for trend < 0.001). Among 252 strains of E. coli (n = 128) and K. pneumoniae (n = 124), the overall prevalence of ESBL producers decreased from 39.8% (41/103) to 22.8% (18/79) (P for trend = 0.018). This decreasing trend of ESBL production was more evident for K. pneumoniae (64.1% to 25.6%; P for trend < 0.001) than E. coli (25.0% to 19.4%; P for trend = 0.514). The mortality rates of invasive disease caused by E. coli or K. pneumoniae remained unchanged.

CONCLUSIONS: The substitution of piperacillin/tazobactam for extended-spectrum cephalosporins successfully decreased the prevalence of ESBL production of K. pneumoniae and E. coli in an institute for children where ESBLs were endemic. The impact of change in antibiotic policy was more evident in K. pneumoniae than E. coli.

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