Growth hormone treatment of early growth failure in toddlers with Turner syndrome: a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial

Marsha L Davenport, Brenda J Crowe, Sharon H Travers, Karen Rubin, Judith L Ross, Patricia Y Fechner, Daniel F Gunther, Chunhua Liu, Mitchell E Geffner, Kathryn Thrailkill, Carol Huseman, Anthony J Zagar, Charmian A Quigley
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 2007, 92 (9): 3406-16

CONTEXT: Typically, growth failure in Turner syndrome (TS) begins prenatally, and height sd score (SDS) declines progressively from birth.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether GH treatment initiated before 4 yr of age in girls with TS could prevent subsequent growth failure. Secondary objectives were to identify factors associated with treatment response, to determine whether outcome could be predicted by a regression model using these factors, and to assess the safety of GH treatment in this young cohort.

DESIGN: This study was a prospective, randomized, controlled, open-label, multicenter clinical trial (Toddler Turner Study, August 1999 to August 2003).

SETTING: The study was conducted at 11 U.S. pediatric endocrine centers.

SUBJECTS: Eighty-eight girls with TS, aged 9 months to 4 yr, were enrolled.

INTERVENTIONS: Interventions comprised recombinant GH (50 mug/kg.d; n = 45) or no treatment (n = 43) for 2 yr.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The main outcome measure was baseline-to-2-yr change in height SDS.

RESULTS: Short stature was evident at baseline (mean length/height SDS = -1.6 +/- 1.0 at mean age 24.0 +/- 12.1 months). Mean height SDS increased in the GH group from -1.4 +/- 1.0 to -0.3 +/- 1.1 (1.1 SDS gain), whereas it decreased in the control group from -1.8 +/- 1.1 to -2.2 +/- 1.2 (0.5 SDS decline), resulting in a 2-yr between-group difference of 1.6 +/- 0.6 SDS (P < 0.0001). The baseline variable that correlated most strongly with 2-yr height gain was the difference between mid-parental height SDS and subjects' height SDS (r = 0.32; P = 0.04). Although attained height SDS at 2 yr could be predicted with good accuracy using baseline variables alone (R(2) = 0.81; P < 0.0001), prediction of 2-yr change in height SDS required inclusion of initial treatment response data (4-month or 1-yr height velocity) in the model (R(2) = 0.54; P < 0.0001). No new or unexpected safety signals associated with GH treatment were detected.

CONCLUSION: Early GH treatment can correct growth failure and normalize height in infants and toddlers with TS.

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