A proteomic view of Candida albicans yeast cell metabolism in exponential and stationary growth phases

Harald Kusch, Susanne Engelmann, Rüdiger Bode, Dirk Albrecht, Joachim Morschhäuser, Michael Hecker
International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM 2008, 298 (3-4): 291-318
The facultative pathogenic fungus Candida albicans has to come up with dynamic metabolic adaptation programs in order to be able to survive within a variety of niches in the human host, each of which has its different nutrient availability. Using a large-scale two-dimensional (2-D) protein gel electrophoresis approach, we analyzed the adaptation mechanisms to nutrient limitation in a batch culture in complex medium with glucose as carbon source. To this end, we constructed a 2-D reference map of cytoplasmic proteins and quantitatively compared protein accumulation of growing yeast cells with those from the stationary phase. This yielded characteristic proteome signatures for each physiological state. During exponential growth, proteins required for the synthesis of RNA, DNA, and proteins, including components of purine and pyrimidine synthesis pathways and ribosomal proteins, were over-represented. The stationary-phase signature revealed a complex reprogramming of metabolic networks: Up-regulation of glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis, and glutamate degradation signaled a switch to the utilization of alternative carbon sources instead of the exhausted glucose. Induction of proteins involved in defense against oxidative and heat stress indicates a change in redox balance and reactive oxygen species concentrations.

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