Re-treatment regimens for acute stage of Kawasaki disease patients who failed to respond to initial intravenous immunoglobulin therapy: analysis from the 17th nationwide survey

Ritei Uehara, Mayumi Yashiro, Izumi Oki, Yosikazu Nakamura, Hiroshi Yanagawa
Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society 2007, 49 (4): 427-30

BACKGROUND: Current regimens for re-treatment of patients with Kawasaki disease who failed to respond to the initial intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy are still uncertain. The purpose of this study is to reveal what regimens were used as the initial therapy and re-treatment for acute stage of Kawasaki disease in the current Japanese medical setting.

METHODS: The 17th nationwide survey on Kawasaki disease covered patients whose onset was in 2001 and 2002. In questionnaires sent to all hospitals with a bed capacity of 100 or more and a pediatric department, several questions related to therapeutic regimens for Kawasaki disease were posed. The authors observed the proportions of hospitals that had regimens for patients who failed to respond to the initial therapy.

RESULTS: Among those hospitals that responded to the survey, 1052 (64.1%) reported that at least one patient with Kawasaki disease visited the hospital. Among these 1052 hospitals, 73.3% had a regimen to administer 30-39 mg/kg per day of oral aspirin with initial IVIG. The proportion of hospitals that used 1 g/kg per day of IVIG for 2 days was the largest among the options for the initial treatment. For those patients who fail to respond to the initial therapy, 464 hospitals (44.1%) reported that their pediatricians would use additional IVIG only. The number of hospitals that planned to administer high-dose IVIG and ulinastatin was 185 (17.6%). The number of hospitals having regimens of additional IVIG and steroids was 54 (5.1%).

CONCLUSIONS: The current status of the treatment for patients with Kawasaki disease not responding to the initial IVIG therapy in Japan was revealed. A randomized trial of a large sample is needed to ascertain the effectiveness of several options for re-treating Kawasaki disease.


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