Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

The excitatory:inhibitory ratio model (EIR model): An integrative explanation of acute autonomic overactivity syndromes.

Numerous medical conditions present with acute and severe autonomic and muscular overactivity. These syndromes include Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome, Serotonin Syndrome, Dysautonomia (or paroxysmal sympathetic storms) following acquired brain injury, Autonomic Dysreflexia, Parkinsonian-Hyperpyrexia Syndrome, Malignant Catatonia, intrathecal baclofen withdrawal, Malignant Hyperthermia, Stiff Man Syndrome and Irukandji Syndrome. In their worst forms, each of these syndromes are relatively rare, are treated by different medical specialties and show widely varying pathophysiology. Most are considered to be medical emergencies and share significant mortality rates. Previous authors have noted similarities between some of these conditions, prompting the suggestion that a single common mechanism may underlie their clinical presentation. However, the development of such an integrative model has not occurred. This paper presents a short review of the clinical syndromes, grouped by the location of pathology and mechanism of action. From this background, an integrative framework termed the excitatory:inhibitory ratio (EIR) model is presented. The EIR model consists of two inter-related networks operating at spinal and brainstem levels. The model is evaluated against pre-clinical scientific research, known pathways, each disorder's pathophysiology (where this is known) and variable severity, and used to explain the reasons behind the efficacy of current treatment regimes. Circumstantial evidence for an expanded aetiology for Malignant Hyperthermia is provided and generic treatment strategies for a number of other conditions are suggested. Finally, minor modifications to this model provide a basis to begin to explain less severe, regional "overlap" syndromes.

Full text links

We have located links that may give you full text access.
Can't access the paper?
Try logging in through your university/institutional subscription. For a smoother one-click institutional access experience, please use our mobile app.

Related Resources

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Mobile app image

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

All material on this website is protected by copyright, Copyright © 1994-2024 by WebMD LLC.
This website also contains material copyrighted by 3rd parties.

By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Your Privacy Choices Toggle icon

You can now claim free CME credits for this literature searchClaim now

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app