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[Management of fungal urinary tract infections].

La Presse Médicale 2007 December
Fungal urinary tract infections (funguria) are rare in community medicine, but common in hospitals where 10 to 30% of urine cultures isolate Candida species. Clinical features vary from asymptomatic urinary tract colonization (the most common situation) to cystitis, pyelonephritis, or even severe sepsis with fungemia. The pathologic nature of funguria is closely related to host factors, and management depends mainly on the patient's underlying health status. Microbiological diagnosis of funguria is usually based on a fungal concentration of more than 10(3)/mm(3) in urine. No cutoff point has been defined for leukocyte concentration in urine. Candida albicans is the most commonly isolated species, but previous antifungal treatment and previous hospitalization affect both species and susceptibility to antifungal agents. Treatment is recommended only when funguria is symptomatic or in cases of fungal colonization when host factors increase the risk of fungemia. The antifungal agents used for funguria are mainly fluconazole and amphotericin B deoxycholate, because other drugs have extremely low concentrations in urine. Primary and secondary preventions are essential. The reduction of risk factors requires removing urinary catheters, limiting antibiotic treatment, and optimizing diabetes mellitus treatment.

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