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Mucocutaneous findings in 100 children with Down syndrome.

Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality affecting numerous organs, including the skin. Our aim was to study mucocutaneous findings in this syndrome. To do so, 100 children with Down syndrome attending Schools for Children with Special Educational Needs and centers affiliated to the Welfare and Rehabilitation Organization in two provinces of Iran were thoroughly examined for skin and mucosal lesions. Their mean age was 11.2 years (3-20 years). Mucocutaneous findings were noted in 61. These were as follows (in decreasing order)--fissured tongue 28%, hypertrophy of tongue papilla 22%, premature graying 14%, cheilitis 13%, xerosis 12%, alopecia areata 11%, palmoplantar hyperkeratosis 10%, syringoma 6%, keratosis pilaris 4%, geographic tongue 4%, trichotillomania 4%, vitiligo 3%, seborrheic dermatitis 3%, livedo reticularis 2%. No instances of atopic dermatitis or skin infections and infestations were noted. The lack of atopic dermatitis in our series was in concordance with its low prevalence reported in recent articles. Improved hygiene due to patient care at home may underlie the absence of infections. With the increasing survival rate of those with Down syndrome, physicians should be more aware of the skin findings seen so frequently in this genetic disorder.

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