Antibiotic and heavy metal resistance in motile aeromonads and pseudomonads from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms in Australia

Olasumbo L Akinbowale, Haihong Peng, Peter Grant, Mary D Barton
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 2007, 30 (2): 177-82
A total of 129 Pseudomonas spp. and 90 Aeromonas spp. were isolated from nine rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farms in Australia. All the isolates were tested for sensitivity to 15 antibiotics and the multiresistant strains were tested for sensitivity to seven heavy metals. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by the agar dilution method. In Pseudomonas spp., resistance to amoxicillin, cefalothin, ceftiofur, ticarcillin, chloramphenicol, florfenicol, streptomycin, nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim was widespread, whereas resistance to cefotaxime and oxolinic acid was less common and only single isolates were resistant to tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole; all isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. In Aeromonas spp., resistance to amoxicillin and cefalothin was widespread, resistance to ticarcillin, tetracycline and streptomycin was common, whilst resistance to ceftiofur, florfenicol and sulfamethoxazole was less common. Single isolates were resistant to chloramphenicol, nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim, and all isolates were sensitive to cefotaxime, oxolinic acid, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Multiple resistance was also observed. Most isolates were tolerant to different concentrations of various heavy metals, as evidenced by their MICs ranging from 6.25 microg/mL to >3200 microg/mL. These results confirm our previous findings that bacteria resistant to antibiotics are present in fish and sediments from aquaculture in Australia. In addition, we have found resistance to heavy metals in fish and sediment isolates. Much of the antibiotic resistance detected is likely to be intrinsic, although resistance to oxytetracycline, streptomycin and sulfonamides suggests either contamination from run-off from farms or perhaps off-label use of antibiotics in a situation where no antibiotics are licensed for use in aquaculture.

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