A comparison of oral midazolam, oral tramadol, and intranasal sufentanil premedication in pediatric patients

Fatma Bayrak, Isil Gunday, Dilek Memis, Alparslan Turan
Journal of Opioid Management 2007, 3 (2): 74-8

BACKGROUND: This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral midazolam, tramadol drops, and intranasal sufentanil for premedication of pediatric patients.

METHODS: Sixty children, three to 10 years of age, who were designated as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and who were undergoing adenotonsillectomy as inpatients were randomized to receive a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg (total of 4 ml) midazolam in cherry juice (n=20, Group M), 3 mg/kg tramadol drops (n=20, Group T), or 2 microg/kg intranasal sufentanil (n=20, Group S). Clinical responses (sedation, anxiolysis, cooperation) and adverse effects (respiratory, hemodynamic, etc.) were recorded. Safety was assessed by continuous oxygen saturation monitoring and observation. Vital signs (blood pressure, pulse, oxygen saturation, respiratory rate) were recorded before drug administration (baseline) and then every 10 minutes until the induction of anesthesia.

RESULTS: Mean blood pressure decreased significantly after five minutes of intranasal sufentanil administration relative to Groups M (p < 0.01) and T (p < 0.05), whereas heart rate remained unchanged. Oxygen saturation and respiratory rate decreased significantly after 20 and 30 minutes of intranasal sufentanil administration relative to Groups M and T (p < 0.05). Anxiety scores showed rates of 45 percent in Group M, 5 percent in Group T, and 40 percent in Group S. Anxiety scores in Groups M and S were better than those of Group T (p < 0.01). Cooperation scores for face-mask acceptance showed rates of 85 percent in Group M, 45 percent in Group T, and 85 percent in Group S (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: Intranasal sufentanil and oral midazolam are more appropriate premedication options than tramadol drops in children.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"