PON1, a new biomarker of cardiovascular disease, is low in patients with systemic vasculitis

Thomas Quéméneur, Françoise Martin-Nizard, Abdelmejid Kandoussi, Xavier Kyndt, Philippe Vanhille, Eric Hachulla, Pierre-Yves Hatron, Jean-Charles Fruchart, Patrick Duriez, Marc Lambert
Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism 2007, 37 (3): 149-55

OBJECTIVES: Because systemic vasculitis (SV) predisposes to atherosclerosis, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) prevents atherosclerosis by "reverse cholesterol transport" and by inhibiting low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation thanks to apolipoprotein A-I (Apo-AI) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1), we assessed whether LDL oxidation was increased in SV and associated with less PON1 activity.

METHODS: The sera of 33 patients with active SV (ASV), 32 in full remission of SV (RSV) and 20 healthy subjects (HS) were analyzed for C-reactive protein (CRP), high-sensitivity-CRP, lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins, PON1 activity, LDL-immune complexes (LDL-IC), and auto-antibodies to oxidized-LDL (ox-LDL), and anticardiolipin antibodies.

RESULTS: CRP was higher in ASV than RSV and HS, and negatively correlated with HDL-cholesterol and Apo-AI. Autoantibodies to ox-LDL and highly oxidized malondialdehyde-LDL were higher in RSV than ASV and HS (P<0.05). LDL-IC titers were higher in ASV than RSV and HS (P<0.05). PON1 activity was lower in ASV and RSV than HS (P=0.02). A trend toward a negative correlation between basal PON1 activity and anti-MDA-LDL antibodies (P=0.06) was observed.

CONCLUSION: Inflammatory markers in SV were associated with a modified lipoprotein profile, which could lower PON1 activity and contribute to increased ox-LDL titers and accelerated atherosclerosis development.

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