Serum uric acid and leptin levels in metabolic syndrome: a quandary over the role of uric acid

Jen-Der Lin, Wen-Ko Chiou, Hung-Yu Chang, Feng-Hsuan Liu, Hsiao-Fen Weng
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental 2007, 56 (6): 751-6
This study investigates the impact of uric acid (UA) on the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. In addition, this study explores the relationship between UA and insulin resistance and serum leptin levels in metabolic syndrome. A total of 470 subjects (252 women and 218 men) were recruited from the Department of Health Management at Chang Gung Medical Center (Linkou, Taiwan). Metabolic syndrome was defined using a modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) definition. The formula for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) is as follows: fasting serum insulin (microU/mL) x fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)/22.5. Diabetes mellitus was diagnosed in 45 subjects (9.6%); 82 subjects (17.4%) had hypertension. Hyperuricemia was diagnosed in 144 subjects (30.6%). Of these subjects, 115 (63 females and 52 males) (24.5%) were diagnosed as having metabolic syndrome. Patients with hyperuricemia had increased body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, and triglyceride (Tg) level. The subjects also had lower high-density lipoprotein and greater hypertension. Hormone assays showed an elevation of leptin, immunoreactive insulin (IRI), and HOMA-IR in the hyperuricemia group. Uric acid appeared to be better correlated with Tg, blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic), obesity, immunoreactive insulin, and HOMA-IR. Uric acid did not correlate with leptin or blood glucose levels. Metabolic syndrome and Tg/high-density lipoprotein ratio showed a statistically significant difference in HOMA-IR using 3.8 as a cutoff value. Otherwise, there was no difference in leptin value. In conclusion, serum UA is significantly related to risk factors of metabolic syndrome except for blood glucose. Waist-to-hip ratio and HOMA-IR were statistically different in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome.

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