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[Case report of Wegener's granulomatosis presenting with multiple cranial nerve palsy and hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis].

We report a 41-year-old man whose initial neurological symptoms are atypical of Wegener's granulomatosis. The patient was admitted because he developed left ocular pain, headache, bilateral visual loss and left abducens nerve palsy. He was initially diagnosed with optic neuritis at ophthalmological department and steroid therapy was started. Although steroid therapy led to rapid recovery of visual acuity and eye movement, he was readmitted for seizure. Two weeks later, a second seizure attack occurred, followed by palsy of the left side of cranial nerves II, III, IV, V and VI. Brain MRI showed focal thickening and enhancement of the dura mater over left frontal lobe, leading to a new presumptive diagnosis of idiopathic hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis. Steroid therapy was resumed and the symptoms improved rapidly. As right hemiparesis developed during the clinical course, another brain MRI was obtained. T2-weighted image showed a high intensity area in the left portion of the pons. 14 months later, recurrent epistaxis suggestive of Wegener's granulomatosis appeared. A subsequent nasopharyngeal mucosa biopsy revealed a necrotizing granulomatous inflammation. A significant elevation of PR-3 ANCA was also noted. A definitive diagnosis of Wegener's granulomatosis was established. The initial presentation of this case was of multiple cranial neuropathies with no superior respiratory tract symptoms, which are typical of early stage Wegener's granulomatosis. In patients with various central nervous system symptoms and MRI evidence of hypertrophic cranial pachymeningitis, a thorough clinical workup of vasculitis syndrome including Wegener's granulomatosis should be considered.

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