Effects of enamel matrix derivative and transforming growth factor-beta1 on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts

Thaisângela L S Rodrigues, Julie T Marchesan, Ricardo D Coletta, Arthur B Novaes, Márcio F de M Grisi, Sérgio L S Souza, Mário Taba, Daniela B Palioto
Journal of Clinical Periodontology 2007, 34 (6): 514-22

AIM: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of enamel matrix derivative (EMD), transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1), and a combination of both factors (EMD+TGF-beta1) on periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Human PDL fibroblasts were obtained from three adult patients with a clinically healthy periodontium, using the explant technique. The effects of EMD, TGF-beta1, or a combination of both were analysed on PDL cell proliferation, adhesion, wound healing, and total protein synthesis, and on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and bone-like nodule formation.

RESULTS: Treatment with EMD for 4, 7, and 10 days increased cell proliferation significantly compared with the negative control (p<0.05). At day 10, EMD and EMD+TGF-beta1 showed a higher cell proliferation compared with TGF-beta1 (p<0.01). Cell adhesion was significantly up-regulated by TGF-beta1 compared with EMD and EMD+TGF-beta1 (p<0.01). EMD enhanced in vitro wound healing of PDL cells compared with the other treatments. Total protein synthesis was significantly increased in PDL cells cultured with EMD compared with PDL cells treated with TGF-beta1 or EMD+TGF-beta1 (p<0.05). EMD induced ALP activity in PDL fibroblasts, which was associated with an increase of bone-like nodules.

CONCLUSION: These findings support the hypothesis that EMD and TGF-beta1 may play an important role in periodontal regeneration. EMD induced PDL fibroblast proliferation and migration, total protein synthesis, ALP activity, and mineralization, while TGF-beta1 increased cellular adhesion. However, the combination of both factors did not positively alter PDL fibroblast behaviour.

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