Calcium phosphate cement augmentation of the femoral neck defect created after dynamic hip screw removal

Eric J Strauss, Brian Pahk, Frederick J Kummer, Kenneth Egol
Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 2007, 21 (5): 295-300

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of reinforced calcium phosphate cement augmentation of the femoral neck defect created after dynamic hip screw removal in a cadaveric model.

METHODS: The lag screws of dynamic hip screw implants were inserted and subsequently removed in 8 matched pairs of cadaveric, osteoporotic femurs to create a femoral neck defect. One of each pair had the defect augmented with osteoconductive calcium phosphate cement reinforced with poly(lactide-coglycolide) fibers (Norian Reinforced, Synthes, West Chester, PA), and the other defect was not augmented. Each specimen was first cyclically loaded with 750 N vertical loads applied for 1000 cycles to simulate early weightbearing, and then loaded to failure.

RESULTS: Calcium phosphate cement augmentation of the lag screw defect significantly increased the mean femoral neck failure strength (4819 N) compared to specimens in which the defect was left untreated (3995 N) (P < 0.004). The mechanism of failure for each specimen was a fracture through the femoral neck. Regression analysis demonstrated that load to failure was directly related to the bone mineral density at Ward's triangle, and the impact of cement augmentation on failure strength was greatest for specimens with the lowest bone mineral density (correlation coefficient: -0.82, P < 0.0001).

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that augmentation of the bony defect created by dynamic hip screw removal with reinforced calcium phosphate cement significantly improved the failure strength of the bone. Cement augmentation after hardware removal may decrease the risk of refracture and allow early weightbearing, especially in elderly patients with osteoporotic bone.

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