JOURNAL ARTICLE

Primary pedicle screw augmentation in osteoporotic lumbar vertebrae: biomechanical analysis of pedicle fixation strength

Daniel J Burval, Robert F McLain, Ryan Milks, Serkan Inceoglu
Spine 2007 May 1, 32 (10): 1077-83
17471088

STUDY DESIGN: Pedicle screw pullout testing in osteoporotic and control human cadaveric vertebrae, comparing augmented and control vertebrae.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the pullout strengths of pedicle screws fixed in osteoporotic vertebrae using polymethyl methacrylate delivered by 2 augmentation techniques, a standard transpedicular approach and kyphoplasty type approach.

SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Pedicle screw instrumentation of the osteoporotic spine carries an increased risk of screw loosening, pullout, and fixation failure. Osteoporosis is often cited as a contraindication for pedicle screw fixation. Augmentation of the vertebral pedicle and body using polymethyl methacrylate may improve fixation strength and construct survival in the osteoporotic vertebrae. While the utility of polymethyl methacrylate has been demonstrated for salvage of screws that have been pulled out, the effect of the cement technique on pullout strength in osteoporotic vertebrae has not been previously studied.

METHODS: Thirteen osteoporotic and 9 healthy human lumbar vertebrae were tested. All specimens were instrumented with pedicle screws using a uniform technique. Osteoporotic pedicles were augmented with polymethyl methacrylate using either a kyphoplasty type technique or a transpedicular augmentation technique. Screws were tested in a paired testing array, randomly assigning the augmentation techniques to opposite sides of each vertebra. Pullout to failure was performed either primarily or after a 5000-cycle tangential fatigue conditioning exposure. After testing, following screw removal, specimens were cut in the axial plane through the center of the vertebral body to inspect the cement distribution.

RESULTS: Pedicle screws placed in osteoporotic vertebrae had higher pullout loads when augmented with the kyphoplasty technique compared to transpedicular augmentation (1414 +/- 338 versus 756 +/- 300 N, respectively; P < 0.001). An unpaired t test showed that fatigued pedicle screws in osteoporotic vertebrae augmented by kyphoplasty showed higher pullout resistance than those placed in healthy control vertebrae (P = 0.002). Both kyphoplasty type augmentation (P = 0.007) and transpedicular augmentation (P = 0.02) increased pullout loads compared to pedicle screws placed in nonaugmented osteoporotic vertebrae when tested after fatigue cycling.

CONCLUSIONS: Pedicle screw augmentation with polymethyl methacrylate improves the initial fixation strength and fatigue strength of instrumentation in osteoporotic vertebrae. Pedicle screws augmented using the kyphoplasty technique had significantly greater pullout strength than those augmented with transpedicular augmentation technique and those placed in healthy control vertebrae with no augmentation.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
17471088
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"