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Pathophysiology of hypercalciuria in children.

Urinary excretion of calcium is the result of a complex interplay between three organs-namely, the gastrointestinal tract, bone, and kidney-which is finely orchestrated by multiple hormones. Hypercalciuria is believed to be a polygenic trait and is influenced significantly by diet. This paper briefly reviews calcium handling by the renal tubule in normal and in hereditary disorders as it relates to the pathophysiology of hypercalciuria. The effects of dietary sodium, potassium, protein, calcium, and phosphate on calcium excretion, and the association of hypercalciuria with bone homeostasis is discussed, leading to recommendations on means to address excessive urinary calcium excretion.

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