Niacin nutritional status in HIV type 1-positive children: preliminary data

Marina Hjertquist Tremeschin, Maria Célia Cervi, José Simon Camelo Júnior, Bento Vidal de Moura Negrini, Francisco Eulógio Martinez, Fabrízio Motta, Mônica Silva de Souza Meirelles, Helio Vanucchhi, Jacqueline Pontes Monteiro
Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 2007, 44 (5): 629-33

OBJECTIVE: HIV infection induces a state of pellagra in cell culture models. This study compared the nutritional status and the 24-hour urine excretion of N-methylnicotinamide between HIV-positive children and HIV-negative children who were or were not born of mothers with HIV-1 infection.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty patients were included in the study: HIV-positive children (group 1; n = 20), HIV-negative children born to infected mothers (group 2; n = 10), and HIV-negative control children (group 3; n = 10). Usual dietary intake was assessed by a semiquantitative food-frequency questionnaire. Weight and height were assessed and compared with the reference data of the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics/Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. For the estimation of fat-free mass and total body water, bioelectrical impedance technique was used. N-methylnicotinamide was measured by a modified method of high-performance liquid chromatography.

RESULTS: Groups were matched in relation to age, sex, percentage of malnutrition, anthropometric measures, and body composition. Daily niacin intake did not differ statistically across groups (group 1 = 18.0 +/- 11.4 mg/day; group 2 = 18.9 +/- 8.0 mg/day; group 3 = 14.2 +/- 5.2 mg/day), nor did intake of tryptophan, vitamin B6, and zinc. The values of urinary niacin per gram of creatinine were similar and adequate across the groups (group 1 = 4.68 [0.75-14.9]; group 2 = 3.74 [1.13-5.69]; group 3 = 3.85 [1.80-8.19]).

CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive children excreted the same amount of N-methylnicotinamide in urine as did the control children. These findings may be attributed to similarities in nutritional status, adequate intestinal absorption (no children experienced diarrhea) and stable clinical condition.

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