Increased carotid intima media thickness and cardiac biomarkers in HIV infected children

Grace A McComsey, Maryann O'Riordan, Stanley L Hazen, Dalia El-Bejjani, Shweta Bhatt, Marie-Luise Brennan, Norma Storer, Jerome Adell, Dean A Nakamoto, Vikram Dogra
AIDS 2007 May 11, 21 (8): 921-7

OBJECTIVES: To assess carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and cardiac biomarkers in HIV infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART).

METHODS: This was a single site, cross sectional, controlled observational study. We assessed carotid IMT, homocysteine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and myeloperoxidase levels in HIV infected children on stable ART for >or= 6 months. Carotid IMT was reported as internal carotid artery (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) thickness; left and right sides were measured separately. Groups were compared using appropriate two-sample tests.

RESULTS: Of the 62 subjects enrolled, 31 were HIV positive (50%), 66% were female, and 69% were African-American. Median CD4% was 32% and 26 patients (84%) had HIV-1 RNA< 400 copies/ml. Sixteen patients had been taking protease inhibitors for a median duration of 27 months. None had hypertension or smoked. HIV infected children had higher HOMA-IR, waist-to-hip ratio, cholesterol, triglycerides, myeloperoxidase and lower homocysteine levels. Left and right CCA IMT, and left and right ICA IMT were significantly higher in the HIV infected group. Significant predictors of carotid IMT measurements in uninfected controls were body mass index and homocysteine, but only the duration of ARV therapy was predictive of IMT in the HIV infected group.

CONCLUSION: Higher levels of carotid IMT and some cardiac markers were found in ART treated HIV infected children when compared to matched uninfected controls. These results suggest that HIV infected children receiving ART may be at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

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