Parallel monitoring of plasma and intraluminal drug concentrations in man after oral administration of fosamprenavir in the fasted and fed state

Joachim Brouwers, Jan Tack, Patrick Augustijns
Pharmaceutical Research 2007, 24 (10): 1862-9

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of linking the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug with its gastrointestinal behavior by simultaneously monitoring plasma and intraluminal drug concentrations. Fosamprenavir, a phosphate ester prodrug of the poorly water-soluble HIV-inhibitor amprenavir, was selected as model compound.

METHODS: A single tablet of fosamprenavir (Telzir) was administered to 5 volunteers in the fasted and fed state (simulated by intake of a nutritional drink). Gastric and duodenal fluids were aspirated in function of time and characterized with respect to the concentration of (fos)amprenavir, inorganic phosphate and pH. In parallel, blood samples were collected and analyzed for amprenavir.

RESULTS: The observed plasma concentration-time profiles suggested a food-induced delay in the absorption of amprenavir: in the fed state, mean tmax increased by more than 150 min compared to the fasted state. A similar delay was seen in the duodenal appearance of fosamprenavir (concentrations in mM-range) and, after dephosphorylation, amprenavir (concentrations below 160 microM). This observation could be related to the behavior of fosamprenavir in the stomach. In the fasted state, gastric dissolution of fosamprenavir started immediately, resulting in a Cmax of 4 +/- 2 mM after 43 +/- 15 min; however, in the fed state, the fosamprenavir concentration remained below 20 microM for the first 90 min after drug intake. The postponed gastric dissolution may be attributed to a food-induced delay in tablet disintegration.

CONCLUSION: For the first time, the pharmacokinetic profile of a drug was monitored in parallel with its gastrointestinal concentrations. The observed food effect in the plasma concentration-time profile of amprenavir after intake of its phosphate ester prodrug could be related to a food-induced delay in gastric dissolution of fosamprenavir.

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