In recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs), BK virus (BKV) has been associated with late-onset hemorrhagic cystitis (HC). In our institution, HSCT recipients with BKV-associated HC are treated with 1 mg/kg of cidofovir weekly. We identified HSCT recipients with BKV-associated HC, treated with weekly cidofovir. Microbiological response was defined as at least a one log reduction in urinary BKV viral load; clinical response was defined as improvement in symptoms and stability or reduction in the grade of cystitis. Nineteen allogeneic HSCT patients received a mean of 4.5 weekly doses of cidofovir. HC occurred at a mean of 68.7 days after transplant. A clinical response was detected in 16/19 (84%) patients, and 9/19 (47%) had a measurable microbiological response (8/10 nonresponders had a BKV viral load above the upper limit of the assay before treatment). Fourteen out of nineteen (74%) patients had no significant increase in serum creatinine. Five patients with renal dysfunction resolved after completion of the therapy and removal of other nephrotoxic agents. We conclude that weekly low-dose cidofovir appears to be a safe treatment option for BKV-associated HC. Although the efficacy of low-dose cidofovir is not proven, a prospective trial is warranted.
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