Novel mutations involving the INSL3 gene associated with cryptorchidism

Brahim El Houate, Hassan Rouba, Hicham Sibai, Abdelhamid Barakat, Abdelaziz Chafik, El Bekkay Chadli, Laila Imken, Natalia V Bogatcheva, Shu Feng, Alexander I Agoulnik, Ken McElreavey
Journal of Urology 2007, 177 (5): 1947-51

PURPOSE: Cryptorchidism affects 1% to 9% of full-term male neonates. Hypospadias is the second most frequent congenital anomaly seen in newborn males. These pathological conditions are part of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Insulin-like factor 3 and LGR8 (leucine-rich repeat-containing G protein-coupled receptor 8), acting as a hormone and a receptor, respectively, are involved in control of the first phase of testicular descent via gubernacular development.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 184 patients, of whom 52 presented with unilateral cryptorchidism, 37 presented with bilateral cryptorchidism, 19 presented with cryptorchidism and hypospadias, 1 presented with bilateral cryptorchidism and micropenis, and 75 presented with isolated hypospadias. A control panel consisted of 270 controls, including 127 fertile, and 143 fertile noncryptorchid males. Insulin-like factor 3 mutations were analyzed by direct sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion. We analyzed the ability of the mutant insulin-like factor 3 peptides identified in this study to activate LGR8 receptor in an ex vivo assays.

RESULTS: We identified 3 novel insulin-like factor 3 variants, including C-19G, V18M and R105H, in 3 of the 109 patients (2.75%) but in none of the 270 controls. The V18M mutation in the insulin-like factor 3 signal peptide had a significant deleterious effect in activating LGR8 receptor in ex vivo studies (p<0.05). To our knowledge we report the first variant in the promoter region of the insulin-like factor 3 gene in a patient with cryptorchidism in association with micropenis.

CONCLUSIONS: Mutations involving the insulin-like factor 3 gene may contribute to other anomalies of male genital development, such as micropenis.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Related Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"