Effect of paraoxonase 1 polymorphisms on the response of lipids and lipoprotein-associated enzymes to treatment with fluvastatin

Dimitrios S Christidis, Evangelos N Liberopoulos, Anna I Kakafika, George A Miltiadous, George L Liamis, Barbara Kakaidi, Alexandros D Tselepis, Marios A Cariolou, Moses S Elisaf
Archives of Medical Research 2007, 38 (4): 403-10

BACKGROUND: Decreased paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and increased total serum lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) activities are suggested to be risk factors for vascular disease. Common PON1 genetic polymorphisms (Q192R and L55M) significantly affect PON1 activity and may also influence high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated Lp-PLA(2) activity. However, little is known about the possible effect of PON1 common genetic polymorphisms on the response of lipids as well as PON1 and Lp-PLA(2) activities to treatment with statins.

METHODS: Two hundred two hypercholesterolemic patients were treated with fluvastatin 40 mg/day. Fasting serum lipids, Q192R and L55M PON1 polymorphisms as well as PON1 and Lp-PLA(2) (total serum and HDL-associated) activities were determined before and after 6 months of treatment.

RESULTS: Fluvastatin treatment did not affect HDL-cholesterol or apolipoprotein (apo) AI but resulted in significant decreases in total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, apo B and apo E, as well as total serum Lp-PLA(2) activity. In contrast, PON1 activity significantly increased. None of these changes was influenced by Q192R or L55M PON1 polymorphisms. Overall, HDL-Lp-PLA(2) did not change but L55M polymorphism significantly influenced its response to fluvastatin. Specifically, LL homozygotes experienced a significant increase, while M carriers (LM or MM) experienced a non-significant decrease in HDL-Lp-PLA(2) activity (p = 0.030 between groups).

CONCLUSIONS: Q192R and L55M PON1 polymorphisms did not affect the response of lipids, PON1 and total serum Lp-PLA(2) to treatment with a statin. However, L55M PON1 polymorphism significantly modulated the response of HDL-Lp-PLA(2). It should be noted that this is an association study and therefore provides no proof but only indication that PON1 may also exert Lp-PLA(2) activity in HDL.

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